A new study has found an association between neurodevelopmental disorders and testicular seminoma. Anna Jansson, Uppsala University, reported the association at the ESMO Congress 2022.
According to Jansson, the cause of testicular cancer is unknown, but there are some known risk factors such as cryptorchidism, hypospadias, and spermatogenic disorders, as well as previous testicular cancer and family history of testicular cancer. Neurodevelopmental disorders are also associated with cryptorchidism and hypospadias.
To investigate a possible association, the researchers conducted a nested case-control study of 6,250 patients with TGCC diagnosed between 1992-2014. These patients were matched with 62,500 controls. Jansson and colleagues calculated the odds ratios (ORs) for an association between history of psychiatric diagnoses and TGCC risk.
History of a neurodevelopmental disorder, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorder or intellectual disabilities, was associated with a 1.5-fold increased risk for seminoma (OR=1.54; 95% CI, 1.09-2.19; P=.015). The patients with neurodevelopmental disorders were younger at diagnosis (34 vs. 38 years; P=.004) and more often presented with stage IV disease (5.4% vs. 1.2%; P=.04).
“We do not know the reason for this possible association,” Jansson said. “There could be genetic factors or other shared risk factors.”
There was a decreased risk of seminoma in patients with psychiatric disorders (OR=0.62; 95% CI, 0.40-0.96), and psychiatric history was not associated with TGCC. However, history of any psychiatric disorders was associated with increase all-cause (hazard ratio=2.91; 95% CI, 2.11-4.02) and TGCC-specific mortality (HR=1.79; 95% CI, 1.04-3.08).
Jansson said this association with mortality could not only be due to diagnosis delay, but could also be related to difficulties getting to cancer treatment among these patients.
ESMO Congress 2022- 513MO – Risk and mortality of testicular cancer in patients with psychiatric or neurodevelopmental disorders